Notes


Matches 1,501 to 2,000 of 10,377

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 #   Notes   Linked to 
1501

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8466
 
1502

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8467
 
1503

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8468
 
1504

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8469
 
1505

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8470
 
1506

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8472
 
1507

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8474
 
1508

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8475
 
1509

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8476
 
1510

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8478
 
1511

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8479
 
1512

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8480
 
1513

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8481
 
1514

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8482
 
1515

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8487
 
1516

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8488
 
1517

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8489
 
1518

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8490
 
1519

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8491
 
1520

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8492
 
1521

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8493
 
1522

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8494
 
1523

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8498
 
1524

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8505
 
1525

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8507
 
1526

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8508
 
1527

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8509
 
1528

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8510
 
1529

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8511
 
1530

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8512
 
1531

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8514
 
1532

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8516
 
1533

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8519
 
1534

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8520
 
1535

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8521
 
1536

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8522
 
1537

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8523
 
1538

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8524
 
1539

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8526
 
1540

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8530
 
1541

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8531
 
1542

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8532
 
1543

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8533
 
1544

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8535
 
1545

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8539
 
1546

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8544
 
1547

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8545
 
1548

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8546
 
1549

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8547
 
1550

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8553
 
1551

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8554
 
1552

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8555
 
1553

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8556
 
1554

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8557
 
1555

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8559
 
1556

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8561
 
1557

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8563
 
1558

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8564
 
1559

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8566
 
1560

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8567
 
1561

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8568
 
1562

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8569
 
1563

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8570
 
1564

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8573
 
1565

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8574
 
1566

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8576
 
1567

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8577
 
1568

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8578
 
1569

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8579
 
1570

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8580
 
1571

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8581
 
1572

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8582
 
1573

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8583
 
1574

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8585
 
1575

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8586
 
1576

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8588
 
1577

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8589
 
1578

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8590
 
1579

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8592
 
1580

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8597
 
1581

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8600
 
1582

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8601
 
1583

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8603
 
1584

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8604
 
1585

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8605
 
1586

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8606
 
1587

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8607
 
1588

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8608
 
1589

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8609
 
1590

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
 
Family F8610
 
1591

Additional information from "Inhabitants of Wil, Zürich, Switzerland and Surrounds":
Aged 27 in 1723 census
died aged 70

Possibly the same Anna as the one born March 1, 1692 (town of origin is different) 
Berchtold, Anna (I744)
 
1592

Adopted

The Schowalter Book

Adopted 
Schnebele, Agnes (I3001)
 
1593 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3214)
 
1594 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3219)
 
1595

Adopted

___________________________________

Steve "Smoke" Schowalter: Newspaper Obituary and Death Notice
Daily Times-Call, The (Longmont, CO) - May 31, 2006
Deceased Name: Steve "Smoke" Schowalter
Dec. 26, 1952 - May 27, 2006

Steve "Smoke" Schowalter died Saturday, May 27, 2006, at HospiceCare of Boulder and Broomfield Counties Care Center in Louisville. He was 53.

He was born Dec. 26, 1952, in Iowa to Harry Ray and Wilma Helen (Brink) Schowalter. He moved to Colorado as an infant, living in Weldona and then Berthoud.

He graduated from Berthoud High School in 1971.

He married Kathy Olson on Nov. 23, 1974, in Loveland.

He had lived in Longmont since 1974.

Mr. Schowalter was a concrete mixer and truck driver for La Farge in Longmont.

He enjoyed building and riding Harley-Davidson motorcycles and working on cars. He will be remembered for spending all his spare time working in his "Garage-ma-hall." He was a good gardener who enjoyed yard work.

He was preceded in death by his parents.

He is survived by his wife of Longmont; two sons, Stephen Roy Schowalter and his wife Jennifer of Hygiene and Derek Bruce "Buck" Schowalter of Longmont; a grandson, Gavin Derek Schowalter; three aunts, Sharon Brandis, Mayda Bartlett and Robbyn Coleman; an uncle, Nordine Brink; and numerous cousins, nieces, nephews and a host of loving friends.

A memorial service will be held 2 p.m. Thursday, June 1, at Calvary Church, 2101 Gay St., in Longmont with the Rev. Jeff Giles officiating.

The family requests that if you would like to honor Mr. Schowalter that you ride your motorcycle to the service. Cremation will take place at Ahlberg Funeral Chapel and Crematory.

Visit www.ahlbergfuneralchapel.com to leave condolences for the family.
 
Schowalter, Stephen Ray (I3083)
 
1596

adopted to a McNally 
Thornton, Edward (I514)
 
1597 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3136)
 
1598 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3129)
 
1599

After their wedding, Bess and Anna Laura came North from Arkansas to Wilmonth, Missouri with 2 horses and 1 mule. They lead the mule for a spare.

Along the way, Indian stragglers (they were not hostile) and former Civil War solders would buy food.

Bess worked for his dad in a general store for about a year, then moved to Chicken Ridge, Van Buren County, Iowa. Chicken Ridge is located between Cantril and Milton, Iowa. All of the children were born there.

Bess worked as a Carpenter.

Source: Personal recollection of Orphie Humphrey.
 
Humphrey, Sylvester "Bess" (I2509)
 
1600

age 23 at marriage
Letter from Roberta Schmidt, 6 Jun 1985 
Wood, John Bert (I22787)
 
1601

age 33 in 1850 census 
Bodenhamer, Christian G (I22773)
 
1602

age 39 in 1850 census 
Bodenhamer, Jesse J (I22778)
 
1603

age 42 in 1880 census 
Howell, John W (I22781)
 
1604

age 58y 10mo, Buried: Beulah cemetery, La Grange County, Indiana.

___________________________________________
Research Note:
Is this Sarah Nithbeth, Married to Simeon Crosby, 10 Nov 1805 at Boston, Suffolk, Co., MA and married by Rev. Thomas Baldwin?
Notice of intention reads Sally Nickols
Source:
Boston, Massachusetts Registry Department. Boston Marriages from 1752-1809. Volumes 1 and 2. Boston, MA, 1898; 1903, page 210.

Sarah Nithbeth: there are several births around 1780 in the Boston Births records.

Source: Boston Registry Department. Boston Births from A.D. 1700 to A.D. 1800. Boston, MA, USA: Rockwell & Churchill, 1894.

______________________________________________
 
(Crosby), Sarah S. (I4557)
 
1605

age 8 in 1860 census 
Bodenhamer, Mary Elizabeth (I22828)
 
1606

Aged 2m 17d. 
Snow, John (I1727)
 
1607 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3335)
 
1608

Airplane Technician 
Clark, Ray S. (I4681)
 
1609 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3385)
 
1610

Alfred 'the Great'
Born at Wantage, Berkshire, in 849, Alfred was the fifth son of Aethelwulf, king of the West Saxons. At their father's behest and by mutual agreement, Alfred's elder brothers succeeded to the kingship in turn, rather than endanger the kingdom by passing it to under-age children at a time when the country was threatened by worsening Viking raids from Denmark.
Since the 790s, the Vikings had been using fast mobile armies, numbering thousands of men embarked in shallow-draught longships, to raid the coasts and inland waters of England for plunder. Such raids were evolving into permanent Danish settlements; in 867, the Vikings seized York and established their own kingdom in the southern part of Northumbria. The Vikings overcame two other major Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, East Anglia and Mercia, and their kings were either tortured to death or fled. Finally, in 870 the Danes attacked the only remaining independent Anglo-Saxon kingdom - Wessex, whose forces were commanded by King Aethelred and his younger brother Alfred. At the battle of Ashdown in 871, Alfred routed the Viking army in a fiercely fought uphill assault. However, further defeats followed for Wessex and Alfred's brother died.

As king of Wessex at the age of 21, Alfred (reigned 871-99) was a strongminded but highly strung battle veteran at the head of remaining resistance to the Vikings in southern England. In early 878, the Danes led by King Guthrum seized Chippenham in Wiltshire in a lightning strike and used it as a secure base from which to devastate Wessex. Local people either surrendered or escaped (Hampshire people fled to the Isle of Wight), and the West Saxons were reduced to hit and run attacks seizing provisions when they could. With only his royal bodyguard, a small army of thegns (the king's followers) and Aethelnoth earldorman of Somerset as his ally, Alfred withdrew to the Somerset tidal marshes in which he had probably hunted as a youth. (It was during this time that Alfred, in his preoccupation with the defence of his kingdom, allegedly burned some cakes which he had been asked to look after; the incident was a legend dating from early twelfth century chroniclers.)

A resourceful fighter, Alfred reassessed his strategy and adopted the Danes' tactics by building a fortified base at Athelney in the Somerset marshes and summoning a mobile army of men from Wiltshire, Somerset and part of Hampshire to pursue guerrilla warfare against the Danes. In May 878, Alfred's army defeated the Danes at the battle of Edington. According to his contemporary biographer Bishop Asser, 'Alfred attacked the whole pagan army fighting ferociously in dense order, and by divine will eventually won the victory, made great slaughter among them, and pursued them to their fortress (Chippenham) ... After fourteen days the pagans were brought to the extreme depths of despair by hunger, cold and fear, and they sought peace'. This unexpected victory proved to be the turning point in Wessex's battle for survival.

Realising that he could not drive the Danes out of the rest of England, Alfred concluded peace with them with the treaty of Wedmore. King Guthrum was converted to Christianity with Alfred as godfather and many of the Danes returned to East Anglia where they settled as farmers. In 886, Alfred negotiated a partition treaty with the Danes, in which a frontier was demarcated along the Roman Watling Street and northern and eastern England came under the jurisdiction of the Danes - an area known as 'Danelaw'. Alfred therefore gained control of areas of West Mercia and Kent which had been beyond the boundaries of Wessex. To consolidate alliances against the Danes, Alfred married one of his daughters Aethelflaed to the ealdorman of Mercia (Alfred himself had married Eahlswith, a Mercian noblewoman), and another daughter Aelfthryth to the count of Flanders, a strong naval power at a time when the Vikings were settling in eastern England.

The Danish threat remained, and Alfred reorganised the Wessex defences in recognition that efficient defence and economic prosperity were interdependent. First, he organised his army (the thegns, and the existing militia known as the fyrd) on a rota basis, so he could raise a 'rapid reaction force' to deal with raiders whilst still enabling his thegns and peasants to tend their farms.

Second, Alfred started a building programme of well-defended settlements across southern England. These were fortified market places ('borough' comes from the Old English burh, meaning fortress); by deliberate royal planning, settlers received plots and in return manned the defences in times of war. (Such plots in London under Alfred's rule in the 880s shaped the streetplan which still exists today between Cheapside and the Thames.) This obligation required careful recording in what became known as 'the Burghal Hidage', which gave details of the building and manning of Wessex and Mercian burhs according to their size, the length of their ramparts and the number of men needed to garrison them. Centred round Alfred's royal palace in Winchester, this network of burhs with strongpoints on the main river routes was such that no part of Wessex was more than 20 miles from the refuge of one of these settlements. Together with a navy of new fast ships built on Alfred's orders, southern England now had a defence in depth against Danish raiders.

Alfred's concept of kingship extended beyond the administration of the tribal kingdom of Wessex into a broader context. A religiously devout and pragmatic man who learnt Latin in his late thirties, he recognised that the general deterioration in learning and religion caused by the Vikings' destruction of monasteries (the centres of the rudimentary education network) had serious implications for rulership. For example, the poor standards in Latin had led to a decline in the use of the charter as an instrument of royal government to disseminate the king's instructions and legislation. In one of his prefaces, Alfred wrote 'so general was its [Latin] decay in England that there were very few on this side of the Humber who could understand their rituals in English or translate a letter from Latin into English ... so few that I cannot remember a single one south of the Thames when I came to the throne.'

To improve literacy, Alfred arranged, and took part in, the translation (by scholars from Mercia) from Latin into Anglo-Saxon of a handful of books he thought it 'most needful for men to know, and to bring it to pass ... if we have the peace, that all the youth now in England ... may be devoted to learning'. These books covered history, philosophy and Gregory the Great's 'Pastoral Care'- a handbook for bishops, and copies of these books were sent to all the bishops of the kingdom. Alfred was patron of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (which was copied and supplemented up to 1154), a patriotic history of the English from the Wessex viewpoint designed to inspire its readers and celebrate Alfred and his monarchy.

Like other West Saxon kings, Alfred established a legal code; he assembled the laws of Offa and other predecessors and of the kingdoms of Mercia and Kent with his administrative regulations to form a body of Anglo-Saxon law. 'I ... collected these together and ordered to be written many of them which our forefathers observed, those which I liked; and many of those which I did not like I rejected with the advice of my councillors ... For I dared not presume to set in writing at all many of my own, because it was unknown to me what would please those who should come after us ... Then I ... showed those to all my councillors, and they then said that they were all pleased to observe them' (Laws of Alfred, c.885-99).

By the 890s, Alfred's charters and coinage (which he had also reformed, and extended its minting to the burhs he had founded) referred to him as 'king of the English', and Welsh kings sought alliances with him. Alfred died in 899, aged 50, and was buried in Winchester, the burial place of the West Saxon royal family.

By stopping the Viking advance and consolidating his territorial gains, Alfred had started the process by which his successors eventually extended their power over the other Anglo-Saxon kings; the ultimate unification of Anglo-Saxon England was to be led by Wessex. It is for his valiant defence of his kingdom against a stronger enemy, for securing peace with the Vikings and for his farsighted reforms in the reconstruction of Wessex and beyond, that Alfred - alone of all the English kings and queens - is known as 'the Great'.

Source:Biography from the official web site of Queen Elizabeth II 
England, King of England Alfred "The Great" King of (I6789)
 
1611

All children died young. 
Greenlee, Silas (I4531)
 
1612

Altleiningen, near Grunstadt, Germany 
Krebill, Friedrich (I2467)
 
1613

Altleiningen, Rhein/Pfalz Germany
 
Senner, Katharina (I1975)
 
1614

Alwyn was born on a farm in Spencer Co., IN. were he lived in his
early years. He moved to Ft. Lauderdale, FL. and enlisted in the navy
during WWII. He was dicharged in 1945 and moved to Atlanta, GA. . 
Sanders, Harold Alwyn (Spud) (I722)
 
1615

Ancient Landmarks of Plymouth aka Genealogical Register of Plymouth Families, pg. 288

______________________
Note: Vital Records Of Bridgewater, Vol. 1, page 480:
Harver (see Harver, Harvy), -------, w. Nat[haniel]ll, Apr 12, 1781, P.R. 3. [Harvey, w. Nath[anie]l, a 76, P.R. 106]

1781 death at 76 year swould be about when Margaret Willis was born. This match is not yet confirmed
________________________ 
Family F127
 
1616

As is indicated by all of the information printed below, It suggested
but not certain that Michael Pierce is related to the other Pierce
Ship captains.
Michael PIERCE - d. Mar. 26, 1676, Pawtucket, RI. No evidence has been
found to indicate that Michael PIERCE was related to Ship Master
William PIERCE or to John PIERCE of Dorchester and Boston. Michael
settled first at Hingham, MA, then moved to Scituate, MA. Commissioned
a captain by the Colony Court in 1669. Ambushed and killed with
company by Canonchet at Attleboro Gore during King Philip's war. Will
dated Jan. 15, 1675, proved Jul. 22, 1676, names wife Anna, children
Benjamin, John, Ephraim, Abigail HOLBROOK, Mary HOLBROOK, Elizabeth,
Sarah, Annah, Abiah, Ruth and Persis, grandchildren Elizabeth and
Abigail HOLBROOK, 'father EAMES,' and 'brothers' Mark JENNES and
Charles STOCKBRIDGE. Married second in 1663 Anna (JAMES) Allen.
Will of Capt. Michael Pierce - January 15, 1675
I, Michael Pierce of Scituate, in the government of New Plymouth in
America, being now by the appointment of God going out to war, against
the Indians, doe make this my last will and testament: First I do
committ myself and wayes unto the Eternal God; nextly concerning that
estate which God has blessed me with, I thus dispose. First I give
unto my beloved wife Annah Pierce, during her life, the westward end
of my now dwelling house in Scituate aforesaid which I last built to
dwell in, and the bed in it, with what appertenances to it, to use and
dispose of, as she shall see cause, and the one half of my other
household stuff for her use during her life, and then to be disposed
of to my children as she shall see cause. Also my will is that for my
wifes yearly maintenance, that my son Benjamin Pierce shall pay unto
her twelve pounds per year, one half in money and the other half in
provisions, and also sufficient
firewood for her use in the house during her life; and I give unto my
son Benjamin aforesaid my now dwelling house and barn in Scituate
afroesaid, and all the land which I have in Scituate excepting that I
bought of Benjamin Bates of Hingham, and that which I bought of
William James of Scituate and
excepting the abovesaid westerly end of my abovesaid house, during my
wife's life as abovesaid, out of which abovesaid Estate in house and
lands given to my son Benjamin, he shall pay unto my aforesaid wife
for her maintenance twelve pounds a year, as abovesaid during her
life, and sufficient firewood
also as abovesaid. And I give unto my son John Pierce all my lands in
Hingham, in the Massachusetts, and my land in Scituate which I bought
of William James, of Scituate, paying out of it to my son Ephraim's
two children Eserikum Pierce and Ephraim Pierce, to each of them
fifteen pounds at the age of twenty and one years; provided that
neither my son Ephraim aforesaid, nor either of his after him, or any
by or under him, shall go about to molest my said John of or upon the
attempt of the three or four acres of meadow land in Hingham aforesaid
which my father gave unto my said son Ephraim which is not yet so
fully confirmed to me as by my son Ephraim's promise it should have
been. Also I give unto my aforesaid son Benjamin all my movable estate
in cattle and boats, and household goods, and such like, excepting
that which I have disposed of to my wife as abovesaid, out of which
said movable estate my said son Benjamin shall pay these legacies
which I give to my children as followeth:
first I give unto my son Ephraim Pierce, five pounds.
2 I give unto my daughter, Abigail Holbrook five pounds.
3 I give unto my daughter, Elizabeth Pierce 30 pounds.
4 I give unto my daughter, Sarah Pierce 30 pounds.
5 I give unto my daughter, Anna Pierce, fifty pounds.
6 I give unto my daughter, Mary Holbrook, 20 pounds.
7 I give unto my daughter, Abiah Pierce, thirty pounds.
8 I give unto my daughter, Ruth Pierce, thirty pounds.
9 I give unto my daughter, Persis Pierce, 50 pounds.
Also I give unto my grandchild Elizabeth Holbrook five pounds to be
paid her by my son Benjamin aforesaid at her day of marriage or 21
yers old.
Also I give unto my grandchild Abigail Holbrook five pounds, to be
paid her
by my son John Pierce aforesaid at her day of marriage, or twenty-one
years of
age.
Also my will is, that if it should please God that my beloved wife
aforesaid should be afflicted with lameness or sickness so that the
abovesaid
12 income be not sufficient to maintain her in comfortable manner,
that then
what shall be meet by my overseers to be added for her comfortable
maintenance
shall be equally payed her yearly by my son Benjamin Pierce and my son
John of
that estate which I have given them as aforesaid.
Also I make my abovesaid wife my executrix and my son Benjamin Pierce
abovesaid my executor of my last will and testament, and also I the
abovesaid
Michael Pierce my truly and will beloved friends Cornett Robert
Statson and
Isaac __________ and my brother Mark Jennes and my brother Charles
Stockbridge
overseers or witnesses of this my abovesaid last will and testament.
In
witness wereof I set my hand and seal this fifteenth of January 1675.
Witnesses: Benjamin Woodworth Michael Pierce
Charles Stockbridge
Above information from files of Stephen M. Lawson
From Robin Dane Pierce:
Michael PIERCE - b. 1615 in England ; d. Mar. 25,1676, Cedar Falls,
RI. Little is known about his ancestors. He was commissioned a Captain
by the Colony Court in 1669. On Sunday March 26, 1676, while leading a
company of about 65 Englishmen and 20 friendly Indians, he and his
company were ambushed by a band of Narragansett Indians led by chief
sachem Canonchet at Attleboro Gore on the banks of the Blackstone near
present day Central Falls, RI. Nine of his men were captured and taken
to a spot in Cumberland, RI, now called Nine Men's Misery, and
tortured to death. Arriving too late, a relief force found and buried
the bodies of the nine. A few days later, Canonchet was captured and
executed. Capt. Pierce's will, dated Jan 15,1675, was proved Jul. 22,
1676. Will can be viewed at web site of Stephen M. Lawson
From Michael Pierce (mpierce282@ibm.net):
The actual birthdate of Michael Pierce, usually found as Captain
Michael Pierce, is not known, although it is generally given as about
1615. This is based upon his first wife's birthdate and the age of his
children. He first shows up in the records of Hingham, MA in the
1640's. He later moved to Scituate. There is still a street there
called "Capt Pierce Rd." He was active in the affairs of the town, as
his name appears in a few official records. He was killed at Central
Falls, RI on March 26, 1676, as was most of his command. There are two
plaques in Central Falls which commerate this fight; one is in the
park at Pierce Park and Riverwalk.
As far as the line being traced back 24 genrations, some genealogists
have taken the line that far, however, I have been unable to
substantiate it. There have been at least three names given for his
father, but none of these have been proved either. It is said he had
brothers Richard, John, and William. Again, there is no absolute proof
of this.
His son Ephraim later lived in Providence, RI, and Swansea and
Rehoboth, MA. My line is Michael, Ephraim, Mial, Job, Job Jr.,
Benonia, Hiram, Benonia, Frank, and Lawrence.
I have some information on some other branches of the family, as well
as information on some of the related families. Several of these lines
go back to England in the 1500's. If you are interested, or if you
have additional information for me, please let me know.
More About Michael J. Pierce:
Fact 1: 1676, Killed by Indians 
Pierce, Michael J. (I2930)
 
1617

Assistant farm manager and church custodian. 
Krebill, Pearl Edna (I3265)
 
1618

At the time of the census of 1860, Aggie was not born, she was born probably in 1861, as her mother died at that time, although there are some reports that Margaret Pope Fablinger died in 1864. Aggie lived with her father and helped raise Edward and Lillian, the two children of Nicholas and Margaret Blake Fablinger. After Aggie's father died she married John Golden. In 1889 she was living at home and in 1916 was living in Hanover, Illinois. 
Fablinger, Agnes or Aggie (I16604)
 
1619 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2258)
 
1620

Aurie Willis Morrison, SOME WILLIS FAMILIES OF NEW ENGLAND: 1973 
Willis, Margaret (I160)
 
1621

Aurie Willis Morrison, SOME WILLIS FAMILIES OF NEW ENGLAND; 1973 GEN:
He was of Duxbury, Plymouth Co., MA
HISTORY OF THE EARLY SETTLEMENT OF BRIDGEWATER,MASS.
BROTHERS: Nathaniel,Lawrence, Johnathan, Francis
"John, Duxbury 1640, bec. one of the first sett. of Bridgewater, where
he was a deac. m. Eliz. wid of the sec. William Palmer, wh. was a
Hodgkins, had five s. and three ds. John; Nathaniel; Jonathan;
Comfort; Benjamin; Hannah; Eliz; and Sarah; says winsor; but Mitchell
give Joseph instead of Jonathan." Savage says, "I would suggest the
inquiry, if that wid. were not the sec. w. of Mr. Willis, and some of
his ch. b. by a former one." "Mitchell says his will, of 1692, pro.
1693 refers to the eight ch. of wh. Hannah was w. of Nathaniel Haward
. .
."
[p. 5] On 21 September, 1686, "Administration is granted to Elkanan
Willis of Bridgwater .... on the Estate of his father Nathaniel Willis
deceased & the Court Desireth his uncle John Willis to assist him in
the managment of sd Administration" and Elkanan and John gave bond for
£40.
John Willis arrived on the ship "Paul" from London heading toVirginia.
It is not known where he John actually landed. He is in Duxbury
Massachusetts when he married 1 Feb 1637/8, Elizabeth(Hodgkins)
Palmer, widow of William Palmer Jr. She had three children by Palmer.
John and Elizabeth had 8 children of which one was Comfort. 
Willis, I Dea John (I205)
 
1622 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I2553)
 
1623

b. bef. settlement of the estate in 1633 but dead by 1647, as it does
not share in the division of Duxbury property. 
Browne, Child (I836)
 
1624 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living (I3839)
 
1625

Barbara Ruff was from Affing Bavaria, West Germany. 
Ruff, Barbara (I673)
 
1626

Based on age at death. 
Tinkam, Mercy (I1564)
 
1627

Based on age at death. 
Tinkam, Joanna (I1565)
 
1628

Becky and her husband, Samuel, moved to Vigo, Co., Indiana 
Kimberling, Elizabeth Becky (I964)
 
1629

Before Clay was ten years old, his family moved to Custer County,
Oklahoma, drawn by inexpensive land. It proved to be too dry, and they
were not able to make it.
In 1985, Clay wrote a letter to a reunion of the Wood family, which
included descendants of his aunt Mary (Bodenhamer) and John Burton Wood:
"I lived in Stafford County, Kansas for four years from 1913 to 1917, and
attended Macksville School. I was a member of the Free Methodist Church
and played football. I left Macksville in the fall of 1917 to go to
college at Friends University in Wichita, KS. I have had very little
contact with any of your relatives since that time. I graduated from
F.U. in 1925, and have divided my time as a teacher and social worker
since that until I retired in 1965." 
Treadway, Clay Augustus Calvin (I22811)
 
1630

Benjamin Snow of Bridgewater was a representative to the General Court
of Massachusetts in 1721.
The will of Benjamin Snow of Bridgewater, husbandman, dated 12 Sept.
1738, probated 6 June 1743, names youngest son Ebenezer; sons Benjamin
and Solomon; wife Sarah; daughters Rebecca Campbell and Elizabeth
Carver; and grandson Seth Pratt, son of his daughter Sarah deceased. 
Snow, Benjamin (I833)
 
1631

Benjamin was killed in Phipp's expedition against Port Royal, Canada
during King William's War 
Washburn, Benjamin (I2356)
 
1632

Benjamin was killed in Phipp's expedition against Port Royal, Canada
during King William's War 
Washburn, Benjamin (I4485)
 
1633

Betty, Byram's twin sister, died of smallpox. 
Harvey, Betty (I3607)
 
1634

Bible Grove (scotland County, Mo) Mail Facilities - In Early Days
(Memphis Reveille Centennial Edition ]
"To get their mail the first settlers had to go to Memphis. Later Willie Darnell carried the mail from Kirksville to Memphis and dropped mail at Willmathville and Bible Grove after which a postoffice was established. Mrs. Matilda Hunt said in her account (In the summer of 1855) a man by the name of Cheatem set up a little box house and put in some groceries and a few notions to sell. It went by the name of "Hardscrapple". Later it was sold to Tom Humphrey who kept a store during the Civil War and they kept the Post Office also."

----------------------

A standard history of Kansas and Kansans - Volume 4, Wiilliam Elsey Connelley;Chicago : Lewis, 1918., page 2005

Prof. Pius B. Humphrey. The claim of Prof. Pius B. Humphrey upon the esteem and confidence of the people of Caney, Kansas, is based upon five years of faithful and efficient service in the office of superintendent of city schools. When he came to this city, in 1911, he was admirably fitted to take charge of the institutions in which the mind of youth is molded and developed, and since that time he has through steady and constant endeavor built up a school system which may be said to be second to none of a city this size in the state. His entire career has been devoted to work of an educational character, and in whatever community he has centered his activities he has always gained the good will and respect of his fellow-citizens.

Professor Humphrey was born in Scotland County, Northeastern Missouri, April 7, 1872, and is a son of Thomas P. and Sarah Jane (Stough) Humphrey. The family originated in England and the original American progenitors cnme to this country long before the Revolutionary war, being early settlers of Kentucky. From that state the family branched out to other parts of the country, one going to West 'Virginia, in which state was born in 1803, William Humphrey, the grandfather of Pius B. In 1838 William Humphrey came to the West, locating in Lewis County, Missouri, and twenty years later went to Scotland County. After a long and successful career passed as a farmer and stockraiser, he retired from active pursuits and moved to Knox County, Missouri, where his death occurred in 1885. He was a man of industry and progressiveness, honorable and trustworthy with his business associates, and a man who wielded a distinct influence in his community because of his general information and good judgment. He married Eliza Pettit, who was born in 1801, in West Virginia, and died in Scotland County, Missouri, in 1887, and among their children were the following: Ann, who married David Stice, a retired farmer, and resides at Downing, Missouri; Marten, who is a retired farmer of Hurdland, Missouri; and Thomas P.

Thomas P. Humphrey was born in March, 1832, in Kentucky, and was six years of age when taken by his parents to Lewis County, Missouri, where he was reared and educated. He was brought up to farming pursuits, and on attaining his majority followed in the footsteps of his father and adopted agriculture and stockraising as his life vocations, pursuits in which he was engaged throughout his career, with the exception of several years passed in merchandising. Through good management and industry and operations carried on along well-directed lines, he accumulated a good property and was in fairly comfortable circumstances at the time of his death, which occurred in Scotland County, September 4, 1911. He had been a resident of that county from 1858. Mr. Humphrey was a citizen who always supported measures for the benefit of his community, but did not engage in politics, save to cast his vote in favor of the candidates nearest his ideal. His religious connection was with the Baptist Church.

Mr. Humphrey married Miss Sarah Jane Stough, who was born July 30, 1842, in Ohio, and who died on the home farm in Scotland County, Missouri, May 18, 1916, and they became the parents of the following children: Melissa, who became the wife of Jesse E. Epperson, a farmer and stockraiser of Adair County, Missouri; Bettie Elizabeth, who is the wife of L. H. Ashby, a farmer and stockraiser of Knox County, Missouri, and the rural mail carrier of his community; Marten, who taught school for twenty years before becoming the owner of a large and valuable ranch in Garfield County, Washington, on which he died in 1895; William, the owner of a ranch and a stockraiser in Knox County, Missouri, who has also taught school for many years in his community; Thomas, who is engaged in operations on the old home farm in Scotland County; J. H., who is a resident of Denver, Colorado; Alice, who is the widow of Thomas Cashman, and resides at Keokuk, Iowa; Nora, who is the wife of J. E. Burns, a dairyman of Hannibal, Missouri; Pius B., of this review; Pearl, who is the wife of F. M. Long, engaged in merchandising at La Platte, Missouri; May, who is the wife of Virgil Donoehew, a farmer of Scotland County, Missouri; A. A., who is a farmer and stockman of Adair County, Missouri; Zoe, who .died in 1903, in Scotland County, Missouri, as the wife of Ed Donoehew, a brother of Virgil, who now resides in Kansas and is a farmer and stockraiser; Mina, who died young; and P. C., who is unmarried and resides on the home farm in Scotland County.

Pius B. Humphrey received his early education in the public schools of Scotland County, Missouri, following which he took a course at a preparatory college at Hurdland. He began his career as an educator in 1893, in the State of Washington, and remained there during that and the following year, when he returned to Missouri and for seven years taught in the public schools. During that time, in 1902, he entered the Missouri State Normal School, at Kirksville, from which he received a life teacher's certificate in 1906. In 1908 he was given the degree of M. P. from that institution, and three years later the same school conferred upon him the degree of B. S. Mr. Humphrey resumed teaching in 1906 and for two years was principal of the schools at Bolckow, Missouri, then going to Centralia, Missouri, as superintendent of schools, an office which he held for three years. After one year in a like capacity at Lebanon, Missouri, he was brought to Caney, Kansas, in 1911, and here has since held the position of superintendent of city schools. Under Mr. Humphrey's supervision are four schools, thirtyfive teachers, and approximately 1,300 scholars. He has done much to improve the system and to elevate the educational standard here, and during his administration several new schools have been erected and a great many improvements installed. Professor Humphrey is a member of the Kansas State, Montgomery County and Southeastern Teachers' associations. He is a democrat in politics, a member of the Presbyterian Church, and fraternally is connected with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, at Centralia, Missouri.

Professor Humphrey was married in Adair County, Missouri, in 1893, to Miss Lula Rankin, daughter of David and Mollie Rankin, the former of whom died in 1892, while the latter still survives and makes her home at Kirksville, Missouri. Mr. Rankin was a successful farmer and stockraiser. Two children have been born to Professor and Mrs. Humphrey, namely: Cleo, who died in infancy; and Jewell, born November 27, 1898, who is now a member of the junior class at the Caney High School.
 
Humphrey, Thomas Pettit (I6488)
 
1635

Biedesheim near Grunstadt, Pfalz, GermanySource:Torsten Eymann database,Web page downloaded, March, 2000 by Michael Hervey,http://www.iig.uni-freiburg.de/~eymann/

Father:Jakob Eymann(1796),5.512.Ist Kind aus 1. Ehe.1845 mit Eltern in die
USA ausgewandert.Lebte in Hayesville/Ohio,USA.Hat 4 Kinder 
Eymann, Christian (I4566)
 
1636

Biograhical Text:
Duncan II ruled a very short time (May-November 1094). He had spent many years as a hostage in England. His position as a English vassal was unpopular in Scotland. His stepbrother Edmund and Donald Ban combined to defeat him and he was killed. However, he granted the earliest surviving Scottish charter. 
Ceanmor, King of Scotland Duncan Ii (I2758)
 
1637

Biograhical Text:
Kenneth was the brother of Dubh. He had acknowledged Edgar as King of England in return for Lothian. He broke his promise to keep the peace and invaded England. At this point he lost Lothian to the English. He killed Culen's brother and in turn was killed in a blood feud by Culen's son, Constantine. 
(Kenneth), King of Scots Cinaed (I5364)
 
1638

Biographica Text:
Edgar was the fourth son of Malcolm Canmore and Queen Margaret. He was very submissive to England, gifted the Western Isles to King Magnus Barelegs of Norway and encouraged Anglo-Norman immigrants to Scotland. This all earned him the name of the Peaceable but it was a derrogatory term towards him. Edgar did not marry and bequeathed his kingdom to his brothers, Alexander to be monarch and David as king's lieutenant. 
Scotland, Edgar King of (I5010)
 
1639

Biographical Text:

Pronunciation: [yurusläv´]

Grand duke of Kiev (1019-54); son of Vladimir I. Designated by his father to rule in Novgorod, he became grand duke of Kiev after defeating his older brother Sviatopolk, who succeeded Vladimir I. A shrewd statesman, he consolidated the power and prestige of Kiev. He regained W Galicia from the Poles (who had obtained it in return for supporting Sviatopolk), crushed (1036) the Pechenegs (nomadic invaders), and suppressed rebellions by Lithuanian and Finnish tribes. In 1043 he organized the last Russian campaign against Constantinople, in which his troops were routed. At home he encouraged learning, codified laws, erected magnificent buildings and churches, including the famous Cathedral of St. Sophia, and founded (1039) a patriarchate in Kiev. Yaroslav was in close contact with European dynasties; his daughters were married to Harold III of Norway, Andrew I of Hungary, and Henry I of France. Before his death Yaroslav divided his kingdom among his heirs, designating the oldest, Iziaslav, as grand duke of Kiev; the others were told to obey Iziaslav as they had their father. Yaroslav's sons did not follow his advice, however, and civil war ensued. 
Kiev, Yaroslav I "The Wise" Grand Duke of (I5148)
 
1640

Biographical Text:

Robert III's 11 (12)-year old second son James had been captured by the English on his way to France where his father had sent him for safety to protect him from his uncle, the Duke of Albany. He was a prisoner of the English for the next 18 years but was well educated by the English at the English court. At his father' s death in 1406, he was recognized by the Scottish parliament and was finally released for a ransom of 60,000 merks payable over six years (the Treaty of London) and allowed to return home at the age of 21.

During his reign, he restored respect for the monarchy. When he returned home he found that corruption prevailed, the country was in decline and taxes were not being paid. He set out to restore order to the Kingdom. He beheaded the Duke of Albany's son, Murdoch, his sons and the Earl of Lennox, the first state executions in over 100 years.

Being brought up at the English court, he tried to reform the Scottish parliament in the style of the English but he endeavored to weld these into existing Scottish practice. The nobles opposed him but he passed restrictive laws curbing their power and bringing them back into line. These laws were passed without the approval of the King's Council and broke all the rules of law in Scotland. His attempts at innovation were not immediately successful but his reign is a landmark in the constitutional history of Scotland. He tried to make parliament more efficient not because he wanted to share his authority but because he wanted to ensure that his subjects should be obedient and enjoy good laws, justly administered. After James had brought the nobles into line, he turned his attention to the Church which had also fallen into disrepute and forced the Church to exercise more control over its clergy. A group of nobles who were resentful of the laws James had passed conspired together to put an end to his rule. The conspirators hoped to win the throne for Walter, a son of Robert II by his second marriage. The King gave a party at Blackfriars in Perth. When all the guests had arrived, the dissenting nobles showed up even though they had not been invited. The servants warned the king and he, fearing for his life, went to a secret stone in the floor to escape. He went down the steps to an underground room that he thought would lead him to safety outside of the building. However, a week before the party the exit had been blocked off, the story being that croquet balls were always running through the exit and getting lost. The nobles, under the leadership of Sir Robert Graham, searched the castle but could not find the king. They soon discovered the stone and the king in hiding. James begged for mercy but was told that he had had no mercy on others and was stabbed with a dagger. The murderers did not have the support of the country and Queen Joan was determined to bring them to justice. She had them captured and tortured mercilessly for two days. They were killed or died of their torture. James is buried at Perth where he was murdered. 
Scotland, James I King of (I3480)
 
1641

Biographical Text:

St. Olga 879-969 Married in 903 to Prince Igor I of Kieve, Russia, she was a cruel and barbarous woman (she scalded her husband's murderers to death in 945 and murdered hundreds of their followers) until she was baptized at Constantinople in 957. She then requested Emperor Otto I to send missionaries to Kiev. Although St. Adalbert of Magdeburg was sent and the queen exerted great efforts the mission proved a failure as did her attempts to convert her son, Svyatoslav. Christianity was introduced however by her grandson St. Vladimir.. Feastday July 11. 
Kiev, Olga Grand Duchess of (I5675)
 
1642

Biographical Text:

The 4th High Steward, Alexander, had a number of sons, one of whom was Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, Berwichshire. Bonkyl was also referred to as Buncle or Bonkhill which means 'the church at the foot of the hill.' 
Stewart, HIGH STEWARD OF SCOTLAND Alexander (I4220)
 
1643

Biographical Text:
Alexander was married to Sybilla, an illegitimate daughter of Henry I. At that time it was called a natural child. Henry I in turn was married to Alexander's sister Maud. Everything was so interrelational by marriage. Henry and Maud had no legitimate children. He was called the Fierce after dealing with an uprising in Moray. Although he was technically an English vassal, he dissuaded Scottish bishops from accepting the authority of York and appointed his mother's biographer Rugot to the see of St. Andrews. He was described as a lettered and godly man but was nicknamed "the Fierce" after dealing ruthlessly with an uprising. He died leaving no issue. 
Scotland, King of Scotland Alexander I King of (I4989)
 
1644

Biographical Text:
David was the youngest son of Margaret and Malcolm III. No one expected him to become king but his reign proved to be an outstanding one for Scotland. He married a granddaughter of Earl Siward of Northumbria and through that alliance had a legitimate claim to a large part of northern England. He had been a prisoner of his uncle Donald Bane but escaped and was brought up at the court of Henry I. He became familiar with English and Norman ways. He was treated well by Henry who arranged a marriage for him to the heiress of vast Northumberland estates. Henry appointed him the ruler of Cumbria, thereby increasing his power. When Henry died he took advantage of the confusion and inaction to press into England taking Carlisle and Newcastle before he was defeated at the battle of the Standard. King Stephen (of England) at the time was not in a position to alienate the Scottish king and by the Treaty of Durham David gained control of Northumbria. As Earl of Huntingdon, David had to swear an oath of loyalty to the English king. Having been brought up in England when he returned to Scotland to succeed Alexander, he took with him powerful Anglo-Norman influences which would eventually transform Scottish society. David's Norman friends soon held most of the important positions within the Church and State. He issued the first Scottish coinage and honored his mother's piety by establishing monastic center. David gave the Normans lands which meant they the Normans gained landowner privileges and authority over the lives of those living on their land. In the lowlands the Celtic ways of tribe and kinship were replaced by the new feudal system of laws and regulations. David influenced language development so that while Gaelic was spoken by highlanders, Inglis, a Scottish variant of English, was adopted in the south. His reign enhanced the prestige of the monarchy. He maintained order, and overcame his enemies partly with the support from the Normans by establishing royal burghs and shires and a system of control over the people. He was deeply religious as was his mother and he founded many abbeys. The king assigned lands to the abbey and in return gained protection and spiritual support from the abbots, monks and clergy. His only son Earl Henry died in 1152. He was married to the daughter of the Earl of Surrey and they had three children, Malcolm IV, Will the Lion and David. He appointed his grandson Malcolm as his successor.

Eulogy on David's death: O desolate Scotia, who shall console thee now? He is no more who made an untilled and barren land a land that is pleasant and plenteous. 
Scotland, King of Scotland David I "The Saint" King of (I5011)
 
1645

Biographical Text:
Donald Ban or Bane (Fair) was the younger brother of Malcolm III. Donald claimed the crown on the grounds of tanistry at the age of 60, but was deposed a year later by Malcolm's son, Duncan, who was backed by the English King.

For a shot time, Duncan II, son of Malcom III became King. Then, again, Donald Ban became King. After being deposed he had joined forces with his cousin Edmund (note: in looking at the relationships, Donald would be an uncle of Edmund) who was a son of Malcolm and Margaret. They managed to kill Duncan II and together ruled Scotland (Donald in Scotia and Edmund in Lothian). They were opposed by Edmund's brother Edgar who declared himself a vassal of the King of England and with the help of an English army overthrew the pair. Edmund was pardoned and became a monk. Donald Ban was blinded and sentenced to life imprisonment. As a reprisal, Donald strangled his nephew David's eldest son. 
Scotland, Donald "Bane" Iii King of (I5029)
 
1646

Biographical Text:
Dubh was the son of Malcolm I. In Gaelic "dubh" means black. Culen challenged him for the throne twice and won on the second try. He was killed during this second confrontation in 966. 
Scotland, Duff (Dubh) King of (I5391)
 
1647

Biographical Text:
England was the preferred goal and largest source of income for the Vikings. The country was divided into a number of small kingdoms which were often at odds, a situation the Danes knew how to make the best of. In 835 they plundered the area surrounding the estuary of the Thames. These plunderings can be considered the beginning of Danish activities in England throughout the next few centuries. There were plunderings, conquest of land with subsequent settlement. The end was the conquest by Svend Tveskæg and Cnute the Great of the entire country at the conclusion of the Viking era.

In 865 a large army of Vikings planted itself in East Anglia where it began several years of war and conquest. The crucial event took place in 876 when the military leader Halfdan allocated land to his men in Northumbria. This gesture was repeated the following year in the kingdom of Mercia where the Vikings received land and became permanent settlers on farms. The rest of the army was given land in 879 in East Anglia. This meant the creation of Danelaw, the country living under Danish law and reign. Together with the royal quarters at York, the five towns of Lincoln, Stamford, Nottingham, Derby and Leicester became the strongpoints of the Danish reign.

In the south, in the kingdom of Wessex, the English King Alfred continued to reign. In 866 a peace treaty was concluded between the Viking King Guthrum and King Alfred on peaceful relations between the two groups of people. Apparently the Danes did not consider the peace treaty particularly binding since already in 892 the Danes once again tried to subdue Wessex. A large Viking fleet arrived from the Frankish empire to England and with this as their ally the permanently settled Danes attacked Wessex. The battle went on for four years without the Vikings managing to vanquish King Alfred whereafter the Danish army disbanded. King Alfred died in 899 but his descendants gradually recaptured the Danish possessions, and by the 920s Mercia and Northumbria were once more under Anglo­Saxon supremacy. Today the Nordic settlement in England is easily discernible in the many surviving geographical names. The Vikings had brought their own name custom from home and we have examples of a number of place names identical to those used in the North, among them ­by, ­toft and ­torp. Place names alone ending on ­by are known in the former Danelaw .

Through long periods of the 900s it was relatively peaceful along the west European and English coasts but by the end of the 900s hostilities returned. From 980 on sources tell of frequent raids and huge demands of silver for the marauding Vikings. In 1013 Svend Tveskæg subjugated all of England. He died in 1014 but in 1016 his son Cnute the Great reconquered power. King Cnute died in 1035 and with the conclusion of his reign